May 22. African American Civil War Memorial Freedom Foundation and Museum, Washington, DC. On May 22, 1863, Congress established the Bureau of United States Colored Troops with the express purpose of providing uniforms and training to and deploying soldiers of African descent. By the end of the Civil War the United States Colored Troops (USCT) had more than200,000 soldiers of African descent, but also employed Native Americans, Hawaiians, Latinos and Anglos. While most of the USCT officers were white, there were more than 120 African-American officers and some of Latino descent. Each year the African American Civil War Memorial Freedom Foundation and Museum commemorates the founding of the Bureau of United States Colored Troops with public and educational programming.
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